Searle Lab

Aquatic disease ecology at Purdue University


Journal Articles

H. Zumbado-Ulate, K. Neam, A. García-Rodríguez, L. Ochoa-Ochoa, Gerardo Chaves, J.E. Kolby, S. Granados-Martínez, A. Hertz, F. Bolaños, D. Ariano-Sánchez, R. Puschendorf, C.L. Searle. (2022) Ecological correlates of extinction risk and persistence of direct-developing stream-dwelling frogs in Mesoamerica. Global Ecology and Conservation 38: e02197 (link).

W.D. Hintz,... C.L. Searle,... K.L. Jonasen,...G.A. Weyhenmeyer [43 authors] (2022). Current water quality guidelines across North America and Europe do not protectlakes from salinization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 119(9): e2115033119 (link).

S.E. Arnott,... C.L. Searle,... C.L. Searle,... A.M. Derry. [43 authors] (online early). Widespread variation in salt tolerance within freshwater zooplankton species reduces the predictability of community-level salt tolerance. Limnology and Oceanography Letters (link).

M.P. Hébert,... K.L. Jonasen,...C.L. Searle,...B.E. Beisner [43 authors] (online early). Lake salinization drives consistent losses of zooplankton abundance and diversity across coordinated mesocosm experiments. Limnology and Oceanography Letters (link).

A. García-Rodríguez, M.D. Basanta, M.G. García-Castillo, H. Zumbado-Ulate, K. Neam, S. Rovito, C.L. Searle, G. Parra-Olea (2022). Anticipating the potential impacts of Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans on Neotropical salamander diversity. Biotropica 54:157-169 (link).


C.L. Searle, M.R. Christie (2021). Evolutionary rescue in host-pathogen systems. Evolution 75:2948-2958 (link). (digest highlighting this paper here)

H. Zumbado-Ulate, C.L. Searle, G. Chaves, V. Acosta-Chaves, A. Shepak, S. Salazar, A. García-Rodríguez (2021). Assessing suitable habitats for treefrog species after previous declines in Costa Rica. Diversity 13:11 (link).

S. Granados-Martínez, H. Zumbado-Ulate, C.L. Searle, B.F. Oliviera, A. García-Rodríguez (2021). Niche contraction of an endangered frog driven by the amphibian chytrid fungus. EcoHealth 18:134-144 (link).

S.R. Siddons, C.L. Searle (2021). Exposure to a fungal pathogen increases the critical thermal minimum of two frog species. Ecology and Evolution 11:9589-9598 (link).

H. Zumbado-Ulate, A. García-Rodríguez, C.L. Searle (2021). Species distribution models predict the geographic expansion of an enzootic amphibian pathogen. Biotropica 53:221-231 (link).


S.R. Siddons, M.C. Bray, C.L. Searle (2020). Higher infection prevalence in amphibians inhabiting human-made compared to natural wetlands. Journal of Wildlife Disease 56:823-836 (link).

J.K. Ilmain, C.L. Searle (2020). The effects of parasite exposure on mortality from aquatic contaminants, carbaryl and elevated salinity, in a freshwater crustacean. Journal of Plankton Research 42:394-397 (link).


H. Zumbado-Ulate, K.N. Nelson, A. García-Rodríguez, G. Chaves, E. Arias, F. Bolaños, S.M. Whitfield, C.L. Searle. (2019). Endemic infection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Costa Rica: implications for amphibian conservation at regional and species level. Diversity 11:129 (link). Cover image

H. Zumbado-Ulate, A. García-Rodríguez, V.T. Vredenburg, C.L. Searle. (2019). Infection with Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is common in lowland tropical habitats: implications for amphibian conservation. Ecology and Evolution 9: 4917-4930 (link)

A.M. Gleichsner, S.R. Butler and C.L. Searle. (2019) Dynamic Daphnia: An inquiry-based research experience in ecology that teaches the scientific process to first-year biologists. CourseSource doi:10.24918 (link)

A.M. Merrick, C.L. Searle. (2019). Combined effects of salinity and infectious disease on Daphnia dentifera at multiple scales. Freshwater Biology 64: 601-607 (link)


C.L. Searle, B.R. Hochstedler, A.M. Merrick, J.K. Ilmain, M.A. Wigren. (2018). High resources and infectious disease facilitate invasion by a freshwater crustacean. Oecologia 188:571-581 (PDF)

A.R. Blaustein, J. Urbina, P.W. Snyder, E. Reynolds, T. Dang, J.T. Hoverman, B.A. Han, D.H. Olson, C.L. Searle, N.M. Hambalek (2018). Effects of emerging infectious diseases on amphibians: a review of experimental studies. Diversity 10:81. (link)

M.R. Christie, C.L. Searle (2018). Evolutionary rescue in a host-pathogen system results in coexistence not clearance. Evolutionary Applications 11:681-693. (link)


T.D. Dang, C.L. Searle, A.R. Blaustein (2017). Virulence variation among strains of the emerging infectious fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in multiple amphibian host species. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 124:233-239. (PDF)

S.K.J.R. Auld, C.L. Searle, M.A. Duffy (2017). Parasite transmission in a natural multihost-multiparasite community. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 372:20160097. (PDF)

S.S. Gervasi, P.R. Stephens, J. Hua, C.L. Searle, G.Y. Xie, J. Urbina, D.H. Olson, B.A. Bancroft, V. Weis, J.I. Hammond, R.A. Relyea, A.R. Blaustein (2017). Linking ecology and epidemiology to understand predictors of multi-host responses to an emerging pathogen, the amphibian chytrid fungus. PLoS ONE 12:e0167882. (link)


C.L. Searle, M.H. Cortez, K.K. Hunsberger, D.C. Grippi, I.A. Oleksy, C.L. Shaw, S.B. de la Serna, C.L. Lash, K.L. Dhir, M.A. Duffy (2016). Population density, not host competence, drives patterns of disease in an invaded community. The American Naturalist 188:554-566. (PDF)

J.T. Hoverman, C.L. Searle (2016). Behavioural influences on disease risk: implications for conservation and management. Animal Behaviour 120:263-271. (PDF)

C.L. Searle, C.L. Shaw, K.K. Hunsberger, M. Prado, M.A. Duffy (2016). Salinization decreases population densities of the freshwater crustacean, Daphnia dentifera. Hydrobiologia 770:165-172. (PDF)


C.L. Searle, J.H. Ochs, C.E. Caceres, S.L. Chiang, N.M. Gerardo, S.R. Hall, M.A. Duffy (2015). Plasticity, not genetic variation, drives infection success of a fungal parasite. Parasitology 142:839-848. (PDF)

B.A. Han, J.L. Kerby, C.L. Searle, A. Storfer, A.R. Blaustein (2015). Host species composition influences infection severity among amphibians in the absence of spillover transmission. Ecology and Evolution 5:1432-1439. (link)


C.L. Searle, L.K. Belden, P. Du, A.R. Blaustein (2014). Stress and chytridiomycosis: exogenous exposure to corticosterone does not alter amphibian susceptibility to a fungal pathogen. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological Genetics and Physiology 321:243-253. (PDF)


C.L. Searle, J.R. Mendelson III, L.E. Green, M.A. Duffy (2013). Daphnia predation on the amphibian chytrid fungus and its impacts on disease risk in tadpoles. Ecology and Evolution 3:4129-4138. (link)

C.L. Searle, Y. Xie, A.R. Blaustein (2013). Development and infectious disease in hosts with complex life cycles. PLoS ONE 8(4):e60920. (link)


C.L. Searle, L.M. Biga, J.W. Spatafora, A.R. Blaustein (2011). A dilution effect in the emerging amphibian pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108: 16322-16326. (link)

C.L. Searle, S.S. Gervasi, J. Hua, J.I. Hammond, R.A. Relyea, D.H. Olson, A.R. Blaustein (2011). Differential host susceptibility to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, an emerging amphibian pathogen. Conservation Biology 25: 965-974. (PDF)

B.A. Bancroft, B.A. Han, C.L. Searle, L.M. Biga, D.H. Olson, L.B. Kats, J.J. Lawler, A.R. Blaustein (2011). Species-level correlates of susceptibility to the pathogenic amphibian fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the United States. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 1911-1920. (PDF)

J.M. Romansic, P.T.J. Johnson, C.L. Searle, J.E. Johnson, T. Tunstall, B.A. Han, J.R. Rohr, A.R. Blaustein (2011). Individual and combined effects of multiple pathogens on Pacific treefrogs. Oecologia 166:1029-1041. (PDF)

B.A. Han, C.L. Searle, A.R. Blaustein (2011). Effects of an infectious fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, on amphibian predator-prey interactions. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16675. (link)


C.L. Searle, L.K. Belden, B.A. Bancroft, B.A. Han, L.M. Biga, A.R. Blaustein (2010). Experimental examination of the effects of ultraviolet-B radiation in combination with other stressors in frog larvae. Oecologia 162:237-245. (PDF)

A.R. Blaustein, S.C. Walls, B.A. Bancroft, J.J. Lawler, C.L. Searle, S.S. Gervasi (2010). Direct and indirect effects of climate change on amphibian populations. Diversity 2:281-313. (link)


B.A. Bancroft, N.J. Baker, C.L. Searle, T.S. Garcia, A.R. Blaustein (2008). Larval amphibians seek warm temperatures and do not avoid harmful UVB radiation. Behavioral Ecology 19(4): 879-886. (PDF)

Book Chapters

A.R. Blaustein, C.L. Searle (2013). Ultraviolet radiation. Invited chapter in Levin S.A. (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Biodiversity. Second edition. Volume 7, pp. 296-303. Waltham, MA: Academic Press.

A.R. Blaustein, C.L. Searle, B.A. Bancroft, J.J. Lawler (2011). Amphibian population declines and climate change. Invited chapter in J. Belant and E. Beever (Eds.) Ecological consequences of climate change: mechanisms, conservation and management. pp. 29-54. Taylor and Francis Publishing.

field sample
Collecting Daphnia from Bishop Lake, Michigan