Welcome to the Gardner Research Group


Biology Education Research Publications

(* denotes undergraduate author)

Gardner SM, Angra A, and Harsh JA (2023). Supporting Student Competencies in Graph Reading, Interpretation, Construction and Evaluation.  CBE-Life Sciences Education.  https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.22-10-0207

Gardner SM, Angra A, Harsh JA. (2023) Evidence Based Teaching Guide: Graphing in Biology. CBE Life Science Education. Retrieved from https://lse.ascb.org/graphing-in-biology/

Flowers S, Holder KH*, Rump GK*, and Gardner SM (2023).  Missed Connections:  Exploring Features of Undergraduate Biology Students’ Knowledge Networks Relating Gene Regulation, Cell-cell Communication, and Phenotypic Expression.  CBE-Life Sciences Education. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.22-03-0041

Flowers S, Holder KH*, and Gardner SM (2023) Here is the biology, now what is the mechanism? Investigating biology undergraduates’ mechanistic reasoning within the context of biofilm development.  Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education.  https://doi.org/10.1128/jmbe.00221-22

Liu S, Liu C, Samarapungavan A, Gardner SM, Clase KL, Pelaez N (2023).  A Framework for Evidentiary Reasoning in Biology Labs: Insights from a Lab Focused on Evolutionary Tree-thinking.  Science and Education. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11191-023-00435-6

Liu C, Dreger DL, Liu S, Samarapungavan A, Gardner SM, Clase KL & Pelaez N (2022) The Conceptual Analysis of Disciplinary Evidence (CADE) framework as a guide for evidentiary reasoning: A practical implementation in a Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) laboratory investigation, Journal of Biological Education, DOI: 10.1080/00219266.2022.2100450

Segura-Totten M, Dewsbury B, Lo SM, Bailey EG, Beaster-Jones L, Bills RJ, Brownell SE, Caporale N, Dunk R, Eddy SL, García-Ojeda ME, Gardner SM, Green LE, Hartley L, Harrison C, Imad M, Janosik AM, Jeong S, Josek T, Kadandale P, Knight J, Ko ME, Kukday S, Lemons P, Litster M, Lom B, Ludwig P, McDonald KK, McIntosh ACS, Menezes S, Nadile EM, Newman SL, Ochoa SD, Olabisi O, Owens MT, Price RM, Reid JW, Ruggeri N, Sabatier C, Sabel JL, Sato BK, Smith-Keiling BL, Tatapudy SD, Theobald EJ, Tripp B, Pradhan M, Venkatesh MJ, Wilton M, Warfa AM, Wyatt BN and Raut SA (2021) Chronicling the Journey of the Society for the Advancement in Biology Education Research (SABER) in its Effort to Become Antiracist: From Acknowledgement to Action. Front. Educ. 6:780401. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2021.780401

Gardner, S. M., Suazo-Flores, E., Maruca, S., Abraham, J. K., Karippadath, A., & Meir, E. (2021). Biology Undergraduate Students’ Graphing Practice in Digital Versus Pen and Paper Graphing Environments. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 1-16. doi:10.1007/s10956-020-09886-w

Lira, M., & Gardner, S.M. (2020). Leveraging Multiple Analytic Frameworks to Assess the Stability of Students’ Knowledge in Physiology. CBE - Life Sciences Education, 19(1), 1-19. doi:10.1187/cbe.18-08-0160

Angra, A., & Gardner, S. M. (2018). The Graph Rubric: Development of a Teaching, Learning, and Research Tool. CBE - Life Sciences Education, 17(4), 1-18. doi:10.1187/cbe.18-01-0007

Pelaez, N., Anderson, T. R., Gardner, S. M., Yin, Y., Abraham, J. K., Bartlett, E. L., ... Stevens, M. T. (2018). A Community-Building Framework for Collaborative Research Coordination across the Education and Biology Research Disciplines. CBE - Life Sciences Education, 17(2), 1-10. doi:10.1187/cbe.17-04-0060

Angra, A., & Gardner, S. M. (2017). Reflecting on Graphs: Attributes of Graph Choice and Construction Practices in Biology. CBE - Life Sciences Education, 16(3), 1-15. doi:10.1187/cbe.16-08-0245

Lira, M. E., & Gardner, S. M. (2017). Structure-Function Relations in Physiology Education: Where's the Mechanism? Advances in Physiology Education, 41(2), 270-278. doi:10.1152/advan.00175.2016

Angra, A., & Gardner, S. M. (2016). Development of a Framework for Graph Choice and Construction. Advances in Physiology Education, 40(1), 123-128. doi:10.1152/advan.00152.2015

Gasper, B. J., & Gardner, S. M. (2013). Engaging Students in Authentic Microbiology Research in an Introductory Biology Laboratory Course is Correlated with Gains in Student Understanding of the Nature of Authentic Research and Critical Thinking. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education, 14(1), 25-34. doi:10.1128/jmbe.v14i1.460

Gasper, B. J., Minchella, D. J., Weaver, G. C., Csonka, L. N., & Gardner, S. M. (2012). IBI* Series Winner: Adapting to Osmotic Stress and the Process of Science. Science, 335(6076), 1590-1591. doi:10.1126/science.1215582

Gasper, B. J., McCreight, J. C., Banschbach, K., Bustion, A., Davis, C., Divecha, R., ... Gardner, S. M. (2012). Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Amino Acid Substitution Mutations That Increase the Activity of the Osmoregulated ProP Protein of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium. DNA and Cell Biology, 31(6), 956-967. doi:10.1089/dna.2011.1510

Gardner, S. M., Adedokun, O. A., Weaver, G. C., & Bartlett, E. L. (2011). Human Brains Engaged in Rat Brains: Student-driven Neuroanatomy Research in an Introductory Biology Lab Course. Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education, 10(1), A24-A36.


Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceedings

Flowers, S. & Gardner, S. M. (2022). Biology Isn’t Black and White: Deconstructing Biology Instructors’ Knowledge Networks of Biological Processes to Explore Nuance. In:  Chinn, C., Tan, E., Chan, C., & Kali, Y.(Eds.). (2022) Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of the Learning Sciences-ICLS2022. Hiroshima, Japan

Karippadath A., Gardner S. M. (2022). Exploring Biology Instructors’ and Students’ Conceptions and Applications of Scientific Hypotheses and Predictions. Fostering scientific citizenship in an uncertain world – European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) 2021 e-Proceedings.

Hart, O., Gardner, S. and Levesque-Bristol, C. (2020), Too many carrots: Are we preparing our students effectively for life-long learning?. The FASEB Journal, 34: 1-1. https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.2020.34.s1.07327

Liu, S., Liu, C., Gardner, S., Samarapungavan, A., Clase, K. and Pelaez, N. (2019), Learning in the Laboratory with Evolutionary Tree-thinking about Blood Parameters from Model Biomedical Research Organisms. The FASEB Journal, 33: 598.17-598.17. https://doi.org/10.1096/fasebj.2019.33.1_supplement.598.17

Suazo-Flores, E., Angra, A., & Gardner, S. M. (2018). Working on the Edge of Mathematics, Statistics, and Biology: Biology Undergraduate Students’ Graphs Constructions. In T.E. Hodges, G. J. Roy, & A. M. Tyminski, (Eds.), Proceedings of the 40th annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (pp. 876-879). Greenville, SC: University of South Carolina & Clemson University.

Moss, J., Wang, C., Carlson, E., Gardner, S., Levesque-Bristol, C., & Nunes, L. (2018, talk) Motivation in the classroom: The effects of control and the use of technology. International Conference on Motivation, ICM.

Samarapungavan, A., Clase, K., Pelaez, N., Gardner, S., Misra, C., Duncan, R., ... Sandoval, W. (2018). Unpacking dimensions of evidentiary knowledge and reasoning in the teaching and learning of science. Proceedings of International Conference of the Learning Sciences, ICLS2(2018-June), 1251-1258.

Yin, Y., Anderson, T. R., Gardner, S. M., & Pelaez, N. J. (2015, poster). Evaluation of a Network of Scientists and Educational Specialists Developing Standards for Competence in Experimental Design. American Educational Research Association, AERA.


Book Chapters

Meir, E., Gardner, S.M., Maruca, S., Suazo-Flores, E., Abraham, J.K. (2023). Building a Performance-Based Assessment of Graph Construction Using Evidence-Centered Design. In: Spector, M.J., Lockee, B.B., Childress, M.D. (eds) Learning, Design, and Technology. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-17727-4_187-1

Gardner SM, Angra A, Harsh JA (2022) A Framework for Teaching and Learning Graphing in Undergraduate Biology.  Trends in Teaching Experimentation in the Life Sciences, Editors, Nancy Pelaez, Trevor Anderson, and Stephanie M. Gardner, Springer publishing.

Pelaez N, Gardner SM, and Anderson T (2022) The problem with teaching experimentation:  Development and use of a framework to define fundamental competencies for biological experimentation.  Trends in Teaching Experimentation in the Life Sciences, Editors, Nancy Pelaez, Trevor Anderson, and Stephanie M. Gardner, Springer publishing.

Liu S, Cai C, Liu C, Samarapungavan A, Gardner SM, Clase KL, and Pelaez N (2022) Assessment of Evidentiary Reasoning in Undergraduate Biology:  A Lit Review and Application of the Conceptual Analysis of Disciplinary Evidence (CADE) Framework.  Trends in Teaching Experimentation in the Life Sciences, Editors, Nancy Pelaez, Trevor Anderson, and Stephanie M. Gardner, Springer publishing.

 Liu C, Pelaez N, Liu S, Samarapungavan A, Gardner SM, Clase KL, and Allen D (2022) Biological Reasoning According to Members of the Faculty Developer Network for Undergraduate Biology Education:  Insights from the Conceptual Analysis of Disciplinary Evidence (CADE) Framework.  Trends in Teaching Experimentation in the Life Sciences, Editors, Nancy Pelaez, Trevor Anderson, and Stephanie M. Gardner, Springer publishing.

Gardner SM and Weaver GC (May, 2015).  The Impact of Engaging Biology and Chemistry Undergraduates in Authentic Research Experiences in Their Introductory Lab Courses.  Foundations for Critical Thinking, Toni Vakos, Editor.