Archive for the ‘science and society’ Category

Over the years, I have been leading a discussion about the ethical and social issues of stem cells research in my class and have used a few useful videos on various aspects. You may find them useful too.

I. Introduction to the topic

References

Here are two recent scientific references that give the current status of iPSCs research and compared that with hESCs, as well as the challenges ahead in research and ethical issues.

  1. Robinton DA, Daley GQ. The promise of induced pluripotent stem cells in research and therapy. Nature. 2012 Jan 18;481(7381):295-305. PubMed PMID: 22258608.
  2. Hug K, Hermerén G. Do we still need human embryonic stem cells for stem cell-based therapies? Epistemic and ethical aspects. Stem Cell Rev. 2011 Nov;7(4):761-74. PubMed PMID: 21461713.

This reference is a general scientific review on various ways that one can reprogramming cells that may potentially be used for therapeutic purposes.

  1.  Gurdon JB, Melton DA. Nuclear reprogramming in cells. Science. 2008 Dec 19;322(5909):1811-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 19095934.

This is a cross post from a discussion thread on my facebook, after the UC Davis pepper spray incidence. There are interesting ideas that are worthwhile to think further. It is also interesting to see that there are scientists joining the actual Occupy protests… um..  I still think the problem is not merely the lack of funding, but is a fundamental issue of the business model for the contemporary scientific research.

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Fai: After seeing what is happening in the Occupy Wall Street movement, especially the very recent episodes at UC Davis, I cannot stop thinking about the resemblance between the current social issues and the problems that sincere research scientists at all levels are facing. In fact, part of the problems is caused by these social issues related to business and government policy; and many of us can easily tell a few personal stories. We have been trained to be critical of our work, why can we not be critical about the system as well? For example, if we were allowed to redesign our university and research system, what should we do to ensure that we will build a sustainable system for the society, students and scientists? I am intrigued in hearing from my friends who have been contributing in the field across the world.

Abel Chun: But the fact seems to be that politics rules the world. Like in HKU, there’re many good scientists for life science but they’re “workers” under the command of professors who come from Medicine, not PhD. After all, we have to apply for grants to survive but those who review the grants are bearing lot of power, managerial levels, and even some so-called scientists (eg. from ITF). If we write a grant proposal simply for “understanding the nature”, U will never get a penny. But if U say your research can lead to drug development, can make big $, ok, here U go.

Albert Hui:  Changes only ever happen top-down. See what George Soros did to advance his open society movement? First make big money.

Winnie Tong: We are too specialised. Research training nowadays is very concentrated in speacilised techniques for specific narrow subject area and often one is pretty much stuck within one research area. It just limits our choices for jobs and power for negotiation. I knew some people would not mind being ‘workers’ for life. What they hate is the job insecurity every 2-3 years for all their working life. Even the universities offer some help at the end of each contract, usually it’s just putting you on a list for other research groups. You will be lucky if they are looking for your specific skill set, otherwise it’s good bye and good luck after a few months. If I can redesign the university and research system, everyone should have at least a few weeks of sabbatical time to actually work in a completely different research area.

Fai: Abel: it’s the same (censored) everywhere.

Fai: Albert: I always want to be a philanthropist.

Fai: Winne: that is indeed the core problem! Many good-hearted, intelligent people did not realize that the business model is actually a contest. And that is often not taught explicitly at school. I don’t think merely providing time to learn new skills without a wholesale improvement if the business model can alleviate the frustration of most participants.

Fai: Abel: and you would agree much of the creativity of the whole community is wasted on irrelevant stuff because of the business model.

Winnie Tong:  True. But it’s something that can be done on our end now, at least if you have a good boss. Like what google does, allowing 10% time for blue-sky development. And say two weeks is like a long conference time, long enough to actually gain some hands on experience and network to other research groups. 1-3 days is just way too short. You tend to forget and less chance to touch any buttons. It would be much easier, say, instead of small little pots of funding within individual research groups, perhaps some of it can go to a centralised place. This pool of fund can be use to hire some more permenant research staffs, who can rotate between labs and groups. This is a bit like the industry where the same scientists may be put in several different projects instead of just one. This way you can utilise the avaliable man power better for more urgent projects. It will be great if the University and funding bodies can think of a way to adopt some of this industrial approach, but that probablywould mean PIs will have to let go of their control over their own funding and it is unlikely to happen.

Fai: Google’s approach is nice and is indeed the approach for many postdocs and graduate students. You always want to try something new. However that may not be for every one. The idea for centralizing and rotating staff is interesting, but I can imagine strong resistance at the administration level. The current model is project based and the school earns money from the government by getting support for new projects. Since staff who can perform a specific skill is related to a project, it is a budgeting nightmare to figure out how to rotate some core people around between different projects. It does require a whole new way of funding and administration. In addition, given the expensive staff and the financial situation, having centralized staff may not be a sustainable solution.

Winnie Tong: I think what’s demaging is that many people are only hired and involved in a single project. I think we can start small, say, two PIs share their research staffs between their projects. If each PI has one full-time staff, it means there will be two full-time people for two projects.

Fai: Without a concomitant change in the system, this bottom-up approach can be problematic. Project time will vary, who is going to pay for the staff when one project is terminated? Also the resolution on the staff time can also be problematic… this is the fundamental dilemma between the award-based system and the desire of many who would opt for a stable life.

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and the reasons behind the OWS movement.

From boingboing:

Police officer pepper-sprays seated, non-violent students at UC Davis

Interview with a pepper-sprayed UC Davis student

Photo:Brian Nguyen/The Aggie. From: boingboing.net

Douglas Prasher by Miller Mobley

The other day I shared the story of Douglas Prasher‘s with the medical students in my class.  Dr. Prasher’s contribution to the study of Green Fluorescent Protein had ultimately led to the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2008; however he was not one of the laureates because of life circumstances. During my preparation, I read some of the stories again and came across this recent article “How Bad Luck & Bad Networking Cost Douglas Prasher a Nobel Prize” published in the Discover Magazine. The article provides an in-depth coverage of the struggles that Dr. Prasher has  gone through over the years. I have been deeply impressed with his determination and noble attitudes over the years despite the difficult situations. I also really like the amazing portraits that Miller Mobley took for this article in the Discover Magazine.  The lighting and composition of his work is outstanding that each picture is like an intense and charming moment that is frozen in time, including the ones for Dr. Prasher.

Gary Schwitzer, Publisher of HealthNewsReview.org

 

The other day my reading of Three common mistakes in medical journalism brought me to the original blog article How the News Media May Hurt – Not Help – Health Literacy Efforts. The author Gary Schwitzer discusses nicely three issues of data presentation in public media that may lead to distortion of interpretation of the findings from medical research.

  1. Absolute versus relative risk/benefit data
  2. Association does not equal causation
  3. How we discuss screening tests

This is a good reminder of how to present our data and draw conclusions from the analysis fairly in scientific publications.

It has always been my role to tell you the reality and teach you how to fish, and not giving you a fish, nor the bogus “American Dream” or things-will-somehow-get-better hope. I have been saying for a while that the economy is going to be much worse and now the really hard time is going to come.

The House approved one of the biggest cuts in US history. When they were discussing this, there were many scientists trying to oppose to the plan, including FASEB. Why? Look at the numbers, among the comprehensive cuts in all governmental agencies, here are a few that we are very familiar with:

NSF   -$139M

CDC   -$755M

NIH   -$1B

One billion cut at NIH means that the funding rate will become even lower and many programs will not be sustained. As they also put it

Make no mistake, these cuts are not low-hanging fruit.  These cuts are real and will impact every District across the country”.

Put it simply, it is a survival game. There is nowhere to hide in society now given the budget cut, poor fundamentals of the US economy and societal structure. Those who want to get a chance (note: it is “getting a chance”) to survive need to show their very best in this modernized jungle. You need to fight very hard for your chance and survival. If you possess the “American-Dream” mentality that “I have done everything and I have tried, hence I deserve an “A” or “X”, despite things didn’t work out”, you will have trouble in this game.

 

A nice documentary by Paul Nurse, a Nobel laureates in 2001 for his work on cell cycle, on public skepticism on scientific findings.

There are a number of interesting articles with the opposite view, some even from the people who were interviewed in the documentary.

In paricluar, James Delingpole

of course there are also people who liked the documentary