Archive for the ‘lab research’ Category

On 8/1/2019, Truc Kha presented her research work on retinitis pigmentosa, a form of retinal degeneration, at the SURF Research Symposium.

Truc presenting her research work on retinal degeneration.

Emre Coskun, Rebecca James, Logan Ganzen, Truc Kha and Yuk Fai Leung attended the 134th Annual Meeting for the Indiana Academy of Science in Indianapolis, IN on March 30th, 2019. All students presented at the meeting.

The Leung Lab!

Logan Ganzen, our graduate student, presented his work identifying a FDA-approved drug for treating night blindness.

Logan presenting his work.

Emre Coskun (right) presented his work on “Investigating Inhibition of Apoptosis as a Novel Treatment for Retinitis Pigmentosa using a Transgenic Zebrafish Model”.


Rebecca James presented her work on “Utilization of a Zebrafish Visual Motor Response Assay to Discover FDA Approved Drugs to Treat Retinitis Pigmentosa”


On 11/12/2018, Emre Coskun attended the Purdue Fall Undergraduate Research Exposition and presented a poster of his undergraduate reserarch work on “A Pharmacological Model of TRPA1-Mediated Nociception in the Zebrafish for Therapeutic Discovery”. This project was conceived by our graduate student Logan Ganzen. Logan and Emre worked closely to develop the foundation of this research project, and established zebrafish as a model for screening drugs to alleviate pain in patients.

Emre presenting his undergraduate research work.


On 11/10/2018, Logan Ganzen and Yuk Fai Leung attended the 2018 Sensorium at Purdue University. Logan gave a talk on “Drug Screening and Hit Identification for Retinitis Pigmentosa with Zebrafish” and shared our latest discoveries on using zebrafish to find new drugs to treat night blindness.

Logan described how we used zebrafish model of night blindness to screen and find new drugs to treat the disease.

Logan described the therapeutic effect of a positive compound that he identified in his doctoral research.


Image courtesy: Lue Xiang @ Leung lab

We have been hoping to set up the zebrafish electroretinography in the lab to facilitate our drug discovery program for a while. When Prof. Kwoon Wong  from the Kellogg Eye Center at the University of Michigan visited our department in early December, we seized the opportunity to learn from him and asked for his help to put the components together.

Image courtesy: Lue Xiang @ Leung lab

Dr. Don Ready kindly let us used his fly ERG setup for our test. Dr. Wong spent an afternoon trying different parameters and finally we have obtained a very decent ERG trace.  Many more friends and colleagues contributed to this endeavour, including Dr. Woody Walls who gathered a number of components and laid down the foundation over a period of time, lab members Prahatha Venkatraman and Lue Xiang who collected ample healthy embryos for the test, and Lue Xiang as the assistant of Dr. Wong during the course of experimentation. We would like to optimize this system further and are seeking highly motivated students with physiology and/or engineering background. We are particularly interested in the talents who like electrophysiology and would like to contribute their effort to identify new drugs for patients.

Left: Dr. Wong explained various ERG concepts to the lab members. Top right: lab members shared their research with Dr. Wong over lunch. Middle right: Dr. Wong worked on the ERG setup. Bottom right: Dr. Wong and Fai learned from Dr. Ready on several critical components of the ERG setup. Image courtesy: Lue Xiang @ Leung lab

Dr. Woody Walls instructed us on using LabChart for data collection. Image courtesy: Lue Xiang @ Leung lab

Robert Carmer, an HHMI Summer Undergrate Student, was featured in the press releases of the College of Science and Department of Biological Sciences.

Robert Carmer presenting the research work that he conducted with the other lab members, including Gaonan Zhang and Prahatha Venkatraman

Also see him describing his research experience in this video.

We have recently begun to work on a project that requires us to find out whether a zebrafish larva can see or not. To this end, we have built a small machine to check whether the larvae show a visual behaviour called the optokinetic response (OKR).

This video shows the OKR machine, which is essentially a drum with black and white stripes that the rotating direction is controlled by a motor.


The fish larvae will be immobilized in thick solution in a Petri dish, which will be put inside the drum. The larvae with normal vision will be able to track the stripe rotation and move their eye balls. In this video, the bottom larva shows a normal OKR, while the top one does not show an OKR. It does not show an OKR because it is a blind mutant. An air bubble is put on the left to reflect the direction of the stripe movement.


During the process of fabricating this machine, we had come across with another cheaper way to do the same thing. There is a type of ancient Chinese lantern that part of outside drum will move due to heat convection generated by the light (A picture can be found in this Chinese article). We bought a contemporary version that the moving drums are driven by a motor. The type that we bought has the moving mechanism for rotating in opposite direction. We then took apart the lantern and used the moving mechanism to drive the opposite rotating stripes. See the following video for the moving mechanism of this alternative version of OKR.


Even though it is not perfect, it works! The most amazing part is the difference in the cost of fabrication.

  • The OKR machine made from Chinese Lantern: ~ $US 3 (for buying the Chinese Lantern)
  • The OKR machine that is made as shown in the first video: ~$US 150 (for materials) + ~$600 (for labor) = ~ $800 (and that does not include the controller box) !!!
  • A turnkey solution from a company costs > $40,000!

That is actually another example of the difference in the cost structure in doing research between the East and the West!

I also had a lot of fun sourcing other cheap parts for the final setup. For example, I have bought a very decent eye-piece camera for less than $40 (the price seems to have gone up a bit since then… but it is still very cheap) to capture the video of larval eye movement as shown in the second video. I have also bought a very economical ring light from AmScope for less than $60 for illuminating the drum area finally.

We are going to use this assay to identify fish with eye problems and then characterize the underlying molecular defects. That will help us study and find cures for the same diseases in human.